Flora and Fauna in Palestine

The Two Wolf Subspecies (Canis lupus arabs Pocock, 1934) and (Canis lupus pallipes Sykes, 1831) in Palestine

By: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa

 

Wolves and hyenas (Hyaena hyaena syriaca) meet quite often at garbage dumps, carcasses and feeding stations. Wolves generally make way for the hyenas which are larger, adults weighing 25-40 kilogram. In one observation, however, a group of wolves drove a hyena from a carcass.                                                                               

Wolves feeding on carcasses during daylight may meet vultures. One pair of wolves was feeding on a carcass at a feeding station in the morning. Eight griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus fulvus) from a nearby colony arrived, but did not approach the carcass until the wolves had departed. In another case, a lone wolf fed one morning on a carcass at another feeding station. Seventeen griffon vultures arrived and tried time and again, to approach the carcass, but were chased away each time by the wolf. They too had to wait until the wolf had departed (Mendelssohn I982, Khalaf-von Jaffa 1990).

 In deserts, where wolves are relatively common, jackals (Canis aureus syriacus) occur only in a few localities. It is believed that jackals are more dependent on water since they are found, particularly in the desert, only near human settlements where water is available. It may, however, also be the easy availability of food that attracts jackals to settlements. Desert wolves, on the other hand, have been observed up to 50 kilometer from the nearest water. Possibly they drink only infrequently and husband their body water efficiently. In the few Mediterranean areas where both species occur, wolves are rare and probably cannot influence jackal populations. Cases of direct interactions between wolves and jackals have not been observed, but wolves probably dominate (Mendelssohn I982, Khalaf-von Jaffa 1990).

Feral dogs have replaced wolves in Palestine where wolves have disappeared. These feral dogs are crossbreeds between pariah dogs, which are no longer pure in Palestine, and imported European breeds, mainly alsatians. They subsist mainly by scavenging on garbage dumps and killing lambs, sheep and goats. These predations are often ascribed to wolves. They may kill 10, 15 or more animals in one night, mostly by biting them in the throat. Once, three dogs killed 70 kids and goats in one night. Often, feral dogs do not feed on their victims. It is believed that where wolves are decreasing, they may hybridize with domestic dogs (Mendelssohn I982, Khalaf-von Jaffa 1990).

Like other information on the life history of wolves in Palestine, knowledge of wolf pack size and composition is based on casual observations. Harrison (1968) stated that the wolves of the arid regions of the Arabian Peninsula hunt singly or, at most, in pairs. Tristram (1866) stated that in Palestine he never saw two wolves together. In fact, almost all depredations on livestock during the last 75 years have been carried out by single wolves, or a pair (Mendelssohn 1982, Khalaf-von Jaffa 1990).                                                                                                                                  

Any group size, from single specimens to groups of 12, has been seen by reliable observers, with larger groups being seen only rarely. In late summer, autumn and winter when the grown cubs accompany their parents, family groups of up to a pair of adults and five cubs are quite often seen (Mendelssohn I982, Khalaf-von Jaffa 1990).

Palestinian wolves breed in winter and whelp in spring. According to the dentition of young cubs collected in the Wadi Araba in summer, the cubs are born there from early to mid-April. A female Canis lupus pallipes originating from that area and kept at the Wildlife Research Centre of Tel Aviv University (WRCTAU), came into estrus during the second half of January, and whelped between the end of March and the beginning of April. Because she had been kept isolated for several years at the Tel Aviv Zoo, she began to breed only in 1977 at six years of age. She bore four cubs (all males) in 1977, six cubs (4 males, 2 females) in 1978, and a single male cub in 1979 (Mendelssohn I982, Khalaf-von Jaffa 1990).

There is only one observation on the time of reproduction in northern Palestine. A female in the last stages of gravidity was shot on 29 April 1952 at the hill range of Ramot Yissakhar. It may be, therefore, that reproduction in the Mediterranean area takes place somewhat later than in the desert (Mendelssohn I982, Khalaf-von Jaffa 1990).

Wolves in Palestine can live more than 8 years. It is reported that sex ratios in wolf populations are unequal. It is possible that the preponderance of males in Palestinian wolves is a real one, but it could also be that the females are more cautious than the males in relation to such mortality factors as road accidents, poisons and traps. The seemingly higher mortality rate of males in Palestine could either reflect a preponderance of males in litters, or greater caution on the part of females (Mendelssohn I982, Khalaf-von Jaffa 1990).

The wolves in Palestine are protected by the “Israeli” Wild Animals Protection Law of 1954, and the Palestinian Environment Law no. 7 of 1999, but they are poisoned illegally if they prey on live-stock. Wolves are only occasionally shot in Palestine.

References and Internet Websites

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Arabian Wolves persist in the Tuwayq Mountains of Saudi Arabia.            http://www.wmenews.com/newsletters/1342855102WME_V6I2_3_eng_10.pdf

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Harrison, David L. (1973). Some comparative features of the skulls of wolves (Canis lupus Linn.) and pariah dogs (Canis familiaris Linn.) from the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring lands. Bonner Zoologische Beiträge, Herausgeber: Zoologisches Forschungsintitut und Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn (24): 185 – 191.                                                                                                                        

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Israeli Wolf (Canis lupus arabs).      http://www.zoochat.com/1551/israeli-wolf-canis-lupus-arabs-258932/

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1980). Tabie’t Al-Talawon fi Al-Haywanat (The Colouration of Animals). Al-Biology Bulletin. Number 1. January 1980, Safar 1401. Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. pp. 4-5. (in Arabic). 

Khalaf, Norman (1983). Haywan Al-Ghurair / Al-Gharir fi Falestin wa Shibeh Al-Jazeera Al-Arabia (The Badger in Palestine and the Arabian Peninsula). Al-Khalisah Bulletin. The National Palestinian Assemblage. Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. First Year. Number 2. February 1983. pp. 12 -13. (in Arabic).               

Khalaf, Norman (1983). Al-Numour Fi Falestin (Leopards in Palestine). Al-Khalisah Bulletin. The National Palestinian Assemblage. Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. First Year. Number 3. April 1983. pp.18 -19. (in Arabic).      

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1984). The Fennec: The Desert Fox (Fennecus zerda). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Second Year. Number 4. April 1984. pp. 1-12. Al Salimiah, State of Kuwait. (in Arabic).                                                

Khalaf, Norman-Ali B. (1984). The Long-eared Hedgehog (Hemiechinus  auritus) in the Arabian Peninsula. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Second Year, No.5, May 1984. pp.1-18. (In Arabic).                                                                                

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1984-1985). The Weasel Project: Scientific Research on captive weasels (Mustela nivalis, Linnaeus 1766) in the Department of Zoology, University of Durham, Durham, England, during the Academic Year 1984-1985. Supervisor: Dr. Nigel Dunstone. Unpublished scientific research and data & scientific diary. Research Notebook. pp. 1-52.                                             

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1985). Activity Patterns and Sexual Behaviour of Snow Leopards, Panthera uncia (Schreber, 1775), at Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Jersey Island. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. United Kingdom. Number 7. Third Year. September 1985. pp. 1-22.                                      

Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1986). The Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) in Saarbrücken Zoo, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Federal Republic of Germany. Fourth Year. Number 10. December 1986. pp. 1-9.
Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1987). The Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in Saarbrücken Zoo, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Federal Republic of Germany. Fifth Year. Number 11. January 1987. pp. 1-10.   
Khalaf, Norman (1987). Al-Numour Fi Falestin (The Leopards in Palestine). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of Germany. Fifth Year. Number 11, Jamadi Alaula 1407 AH, January 1987 AD. pp. 12-13. (in Arabic).                                                                                           

Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1987). The Sinai Leopard (Panthera pardus jarvisi) in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Federal Republic of Germany. Fifth Year. Number 12. February 1987. pp.1-9.           
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1987). A Trip to Kuwait Zoo, State of Kuwait. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of Germany. Fifth Year, Number 13, Ramadan 1407 AH, April 1987 AD. pp. 1-5. (in Arabic).          

Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1988). Activity Patterns and Reproductive Behaviour of Snow Leopards, Panthera uncia (Schreber, 1775) at Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Jersey Island. International Pedigree Book of Snow Leopards, Panthera uncia. Volume 5, pp. 61 - 71. Editor: Leif Blomqvist, Helsinki Zoo, Finland.

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (1990). The Wolf (Canis lupus) in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178-6288. Eighth Year, Number 20, December 1990, Jumada Al Thani 1411 AH. pp. 1-11. Rilchingen-Hanweiler and Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany.                                                 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1991). A Trip to Zoo Budapest, Hungary. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 21, Ninth Year, January 1991. pp. 1-4.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 30, Tenth Year, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (in Arabic).    
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1994). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae'q Al-Nouma'n (Anemone coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI (Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (in Arabic).                                                                                          

Khalaf, Norman Ali (2001). Foxes of Palestine.   www.geocities.com/ali_porsche2000/fox.html                                                      

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). The Extinct and Endangered Animals in Palestine. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Home Page. Extinct and Endangered Animals and Reintroduction.      
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Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). Threatened Mammals. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Home Page. Extinct and Endangered Animals and Reintroduction.  http://gazelle.8m.net/photo3.html
Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). Leopards in Palestine. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Homepage.   http://gazelle.8m.net/whats_new.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004 / Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. ISBN 3-00-014121-9. Erste Auflage, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten. Zweite erweiterte Auflage, August 2004: 460 Seiten. Norman Ali Khalaf, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/   
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Leopards of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. United Arab Emirates. Number 41. Twenty Third Year. May 2005. pp. 1-9.        
www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Palestine_Leopard.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Der Arabische Leopard (Panthera pardus nimr). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 42. Twenty Third Year. June 2005. pp. 1-8. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.       www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Arabischer_Leopard.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Mammals in Dubai Zoo, Dubai City, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 45, September 2005. pp. 1-14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.      
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Rafah Zoo in the Rafah Refugee Camp, Gaza Strip, Palestine : A Story of Destruction by the Israeli Occupation Army. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 46, October 2005. pp. 1-11. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. 
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Qalqilia Zoo and the Natural History Museum in the City of Qalqilia, West Bank, Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, November 2005. pp. 1-10. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.      
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (Member of PALESTA) (2005). Palestinian Scientists and Technologists Abroad (PALESTA). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 11-12. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic).
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Arabian Carnivores in the Arabia's Wildlife Centre, Sharjah Desert Park, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 48. December 2005. pp. 1-9. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic).                                                                               

Khalaf, Norman Ali (2005, 2006). Chapter 3: Geography, Flora and Fauna. Pages 32-39. in: Palestine: A Guide. By Mariam Shahin, Photography by George Azar. Co-Author: Norman Ali Khalaf. Northampton, Massachusetts: Interlink Publishing Group, 2005, 2006. xi + 471 pages. Appendices to page 500.          
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Mammalia Palaestina: The Mammals of Palestine / Die Säugetiere Palästinas. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 55, Twenty-fourth Year, July 2006, Jumada Al-Thania 1427. pp. 1-46. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2006). Mammalia Arabica. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980-2006 / Mammalia Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2006. ISBN 3-00-017294-7. Erste Auflage, Juli 2006, 484 pp. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.         http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/mammaliaarabica.htm
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). The Asiatic or Persian Lion (Panthera leo persica) in Palestine. In: Mammalia Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2006. Erste Auflage, Juli 2006. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland und Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 147-149.          www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Lion_Palestine.html

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Eine Persönlichkeit aus Jaffa, Palästina / A Personality from Jaffa, Palestine: Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf (Abu Ali) (1938-2006). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 56, Twenty-fourth Year, August 2006. pp. 8-19. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://bassam-ali-taher-khalaf.webs.com/                                                        

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). The Common Weasel (Mustela nivalis, Linnaeus 1766) in Palestine and the East Mediterranean Region. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 57, Twenty-fourth Year, September 2006. pp. 1-7. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.          www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Weasel_Palestine.html
Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). The Asiatic or Persian Lion (Panthera leo persica, Meyer 1826) in Palestine and the Arabian and Islamic Region. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 58, October 2006, Ramadan 1427 H. pp. 1-13. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Asiatic_Lion.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Ein Besuch im Neunkircher Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Deutschland / A Visit to Neunkirchen Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 59, November 2006. pp.1-25. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabisch / Arabic).  http://khalaf.homepage24.de/Ein%20Besuch%20im%20Neunkircher%20Zoo-%20Neunkirchen-%20Saarland-%20Deutschland

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Behavioural Observations on the Arabian Leopard (Panthera pardus nimr, Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1833) in the Arabia's Wildlife Centre, Desert Park, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 61, January 2007, Thu Al-Hijja 1427 AH. pp. 1-14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Article in Arabic; References in English and German).        
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20Arabian%20Leopard%20in%20the%20Arabia-s%20Wildlife%20Centre-%
20Sharjah-%20UAE

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). The First Sight Record of the Arabian Sand Cat (Felis margarita harrisoni, Hemmer, Grubb and Groves 1976) from the Gaza Strip, Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 65, May 2007, Rabi'e Al-Akher 1428 AH. pp. 1-19. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Article in English; Abstract in English and Arabic, Kurzfassung in Deutsch; References in English, German and Arabic). 
http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Gaza_Sand_Cat.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Haywanat Filistin (The Animals of Palestine). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. 2007. http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%
AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86                             

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Mus musculus gazaensis Khalaf, 2007: A New House Mouse Subspecies from the Gaza Strip, Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 66, June 2007, Jamada Al-Ulla 1428 AH. pp. 14-24. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstract in English). http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Gaza_House_Mouse.html

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Felidae Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2007 / Felidae Arabica. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980-2007. ISBN 978-3-00-019568-6. Erste Auflage (First Edition), Juli 2007, 300 pp. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic, German and English).           
http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/felidaearabica.htm                

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). The Zanzibar Leopard (Panthera pardus adersi, Pocock 1932). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 74, February 2008. pp. 1-13. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.       http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Zanzibar_Leopard.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Nimer Zanjibar (Zanzibar Leopard). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al- Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 74, February 2008. Page 14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Article in Arabic).
http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%86%D9%85%D8%B1_%D8%B2%D9%86%D8%AC%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%B1
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). The Sri Lanka leopard (Panthera pardus kotiya, Deraniyagala 1956). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 76, April 2008. pp. 1-17. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Sri_Lanka_Leopard.html
Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Nimer Sri Lanka (Sri Lanka leopard). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 76, April 2008. Page 18. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic).      http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%86%D9%85%D8%B1_%D8%B3%D8%B1%D9%8A%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%83%D8%A7                                       

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). The Persian or Iranian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor, Pocock 1927). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 77, May 2008. pp. 1-15. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.   
http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Persian_Leopard.html                         

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Canis aureus palaestina Khalaf, 2008: A New Golden Jackal Subspecies from the Gaza Strip, Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 80, August 2008, Rajab / Sha’ban 1429 AH. pp. 1-13. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstract in English).            http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Palestine_Golden_Jackal.html            

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Carnivora Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 2005-2008. / Carnivora Arabica. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 2005-2008. First Edition, September 2008, Ramadan 1429 AH. 396 pps. Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of Germany. ISBN 978-9948-03-459-9. (In Arabic, English and German). http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/carnivoraarabica.htm                                                               

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Flora and Fauna in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab 1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.             http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/                                                                                    

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2009). Fauna Palaestina – Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2006 / Fauna Palaestina – Teil Eins. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2006. ISBN 978-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition, September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland.    http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm                                                                 

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010). Fauna Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / Fauna Emiratus – Teil Eins. Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate zwischen 2004 - 2009. ISBN 978-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland.  
http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm     

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2012). Fauna Palaestina – Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2009. ISBN 978-9948-16-667-2. 1. Auflage / First Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine.          http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm                                                                  

Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Fauna Palaestina – Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Drei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 2005 – 2012. ISBN 978-9950-383-35-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 pages (English Part 350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, State of Palestine.           http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm                                                       

 Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Der Mosbacher Löwe (Panthera leo fossilis, Reichenau 1906) / The Early Middle Pleistocene European Cave Lion (Panthera leo fossilis, Reichenau 1906). Gazelle - The Palestinian Biological Bulletin (ISSN 0178-6288). Number 101. January 2013. Pp. 1-26. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://lion-panthera-leo.webs.com/mosbacher-loewe                                                                                         

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). Der Europäische Leopard (Panthera pardus sickenbergi, Schütt 1969) / The European Leopard (Panthera pardus sickenbergi, Schütt 1969). Gazelle - The Palestinian Biological Bulletin (ISSN 0178-6288). Number 102. February 2013. Pp. 1-17. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://leopard-panthera-pardus.webs.com/europeanleopard.htm & http://issuu.com/dr-normanalibassamkhalaf/docs/europ__ische_leopard_panthera_pardu     

Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2013). The Two Wolf Subspecies (Canis lupus arabs Pocock, 1934) and (Canis lupus pallipes Sykes, 1831) in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 107, November 2013, Muharram 1435 AH. pp. 1-29. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.          http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/palestinewolf.htm                                                                        

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